Epilepsy — sometimes called a seizure disorder — is a chronic unpredictable neurological condition characterized by intermittent electrical and chemical disturbances in the brain that cause seizures which affect awareness, movement, or sensation. Epilepsy is not mental illness. Epilepsy is not mental retardation. Any one at any time at any age can have a seizure. Epilepsy is not a single entity, but a family of more than 40 syndromes that affects more than 3 million people in the U.S. and 50 million worldwide. In 70 percent of cases, the cause of epilepsy is unknown.